### A New Kind of Science

Author: Stephen Wolfram

What are the general features capturing human intelligence, independent of details of human?

Any system that behaves not

obviously simplehas an equivalent computation power as our most sophisticated computer.

The whole idea of using mathematical formula to describe behavior only makes sense when behavior are

computationally reducible.

If a system is

computationally irreducible, there is a tangible separation between the underlying rules of the system and the overall behavior associated with the irreducible amount of computation work needed to go from one to the other.

Real unpredictability can arise from

definite underlying rules.

The structure of a theory will consist of a number of formulas that states relationships between

meaningless objectsand adeductive netthat binds these formulas together in a consistent and homogeneous set.

Computable functionare the mathematical function that can be calculated by a mechanical calculation device given unlimited storage space and time,i.e., any function that has an algorithm is computable.